A rapidly emerging third sector in education, shadow education, has changed the dynamics of the education market in Pakistan. Its wide prevalence and impact on academic performance makes it indispensible to any future educational policy debate. This project seeks to gain a better understanding of this sector in the context of Punjab, Pakistan. The key questions that will be investigated include: To what extent can the learning-gap observed between private and public schools be explained by private tuition? Is private tuition a complement to quality formal education or a substitute for poor-quality public schooling? Is it a demand-driven phenomenon or a supply-driven one? How does it affect the incentive structures for teachers and students within school hours? What would be an appropriate policy towards private tuition and how does it fit into the education privatization debate?


Analyzing the Market for Shadow Education in Pakistan: Does private tuition
affect the learning gap between private and public schools?
Bisma Haseeb Khan, Sahar Amjad Sheikh


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